A Concise Text-book of Organic Chemistry by C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

A Concise Text-book of Organic Chemistry by C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient advisor for chemistry scholars getting ready for complex point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is largely the chemistry of carbon. The e-book makes a speciality of the preparations and adjustments of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are consequently studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives often called the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia because of the substitution of the hydrogen atoms through alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even though at the moment is handy for common reasons, is proven to be no longer a real consultant of the particular association within which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the various tools and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the straightforward aliphatic natural compounds as an instance. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, resembling the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This booklet is acceptable for college students of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for checks within the basic certificates of schooling and for the normal nationwide certificates. Readers on the topic of agricultural, clinical, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this advisor appropriate.

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G. mercuric and barium chlorides) or by the thermal decomposition of ethylene dichloride at 600°C. C H i C H + HCl = CH2C1CH2C1 = CH2:CHC1 CH2:CHC1 + HCl Chloroprene (CH2:CH-CC1:CH2) Polymerized to form "neoprene" synthetic rubber, chloroprene is manufactured from vinylacetylene (cf. p. 28). This substance is converted to chloroprene by the addition of hydrogen chloride in the presence of a cuprous chloride catalyst. C H 2 : C H C : C H + HCl = CH2:CHCC1:CH2 Tetrafluoroethylene This is prepared by heating chlorodifluoromethane, which is obtained by the action of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride on chloro­ form.

N o further oxidation is possible unless the acid molecule is completely broken up. X3x^ / " c ""'\c/ ll ^OH Ethyl alcohol o ^ Acetaldehyde -Ne­ II o Acetic acid Secondary alcohols are oxidized to ketones, but cannot oxidized further without breaking down. ( C H 3 ) 2 C H O H -> Isopropyl alcohol be (CH3)2CO Acetone The oxidation of a secondary alcohol to a ketone can be brought about by potassium dichromate in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid. Potassium permanganate causes a break down of the molecule.

The alcohols may be regarded as derivatives of water in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by an alkyl group. H—O—Η CaHg—O—Η 42 THE ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS AND General Methods of Preparation 43 ETHERS of the Alcohols The following methods are available for any alcohol: ( 1 ) Hydrolysis of halide. From a hahde by hydrolysis with aqueous caustic potash or moist silver oxide. K O H + CHgBr = CH3OH + K B r A g O H + C2H5I = A g l + C2H5OH (2) Hydrolysis of ester. From an ester by hydrolysis. CH3COOC2H5 + H2O - CH3COOH + C2H5OH (3) Reduction of carbonyl group.

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