A Semantic Web primer by G Antoniou, Frank Van Harmelen

A Semantic Web primer by G Antoniou, Frank Van Harmelen

By G Antoniou, Frank Van Harmelen

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Instances of the extended type are also instances of the original type. They may contain additional information, but neither less information nor information of the wrong type. Data Type Restriction An existing data type may also be restricted by adding constraints on certain values. For example, new type and use attributes may be added, or the numerical constraints of minOccurs and maxOccurs tightened. It is important to understand that restriction is not the opposite process from extension. Restriction is not achieved by deleting elements or attributes.

Agents fully aware of a layer should also be able to interpret and use information written at lower levels. For example, agents aware of the semantics of OWL can take full advantage of information written in RDF and RDF Schema. • Upward partial understanding. The design should be such that agents fully aware of a layer should be able to take at least partial advantage of information at higher levels. For example, an agent aware only of the RDF and RDF Schema semantics might interpret knowledge written in OWL partly, by disregarding those elements that go beyond RDF and RDF Schema.

Element and tag names must be permissible. 7 Structured Web Documents: XML Tree Model of XML Documents It is possible to represent well-formed XML documents as trees; thus trees provide a formal data model for XML. This representation is often instructive. Grigoris, where is the draft of the paper you promised me last week? 1 shows the tree representation of this XML document. It is an ordered labeled tree: • There is exactly one root. • There are no cycles. • Each node, other than the root, has exactly one parent.

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