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Extra resources for Advanced Concrete Technology 1: Constituent Materials (Advanced Concrete Technology Set)
It will be more rapid, however, at high ambient temperatures (above 25°C). Setting time is a function of clinker mineralogy (particularly free lime level), clinker chemistry and fineness. The finer the cement and the higher the free lime level, the shorter the setting time in general. 9 Simplified illustration of hydration of cement paste. 7). Setting is largely due to the hydration of C3S and it represents the development of hydrate structure, which eventually results in compressive strength. The C–S–H gel which forms around the larger C3S and C2S grains is formed in situ and has a rather dense and featureless appearance when viewed using an electron microscope.
One compromise, which lowers grinding power requirement without prejudicing product quality, is the installation of a pre-grinder, such as a high-pressure roll press, to finely crush the clinker obviating the need for large grinding media in the first chamber of the ball mill. 1 Introduction The hydration of Portland cement involves the reaction of the anhydrous calcium silicate and aluminate phases with water to form hydrated phases. These solid hydrates occupy more space than the anhydrous particles and the result is a rigid interlocking mass whose porosity is a function of the ratio of water to cement (w/c) in the original mix.
Mills which do not have this separating stage are known as open-circuit mills and they are less efficient particularly at high cement finenesses (above 350 m2/kg). The efficiency of the clinker grinding process is very low. Less than 2% of the electrical energy consumed is used in actually fracturing the particles; the rest is converted to heat. Modern mills are equipped with internal water sprays, which cool the process by evaporation. Cement mill temperatures are typically in the range 110–130°C and at this temperature the hydrated form of calcium sulfate (gypsum, CaSO4·2H2O) added to control the initial Cements hydration reactions undergoes dehydration.