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G) That the changes of course must be sufficiently large to cause a material error in the calculations of the submarine's commander. The angle required should not be less than 20° or over 40°, except that if changes are made, at intervals of time not greater than one-half the maximum time interval for the speed in use, 10° changes may be made. (h) That in view of the possibility that a submarine may be able to predict changes in courses and to determine the base course from a series of several observations when the zigzag is duplicated each hour, this practice should be abolished and the zigzag so constructed that no two successive hours are similar.
I) In order to make the determination of the base course impossible, the zigzag should extend over a period of at least half a day, the apparent base course being changed at intervals varying from 40 minutes to 1 hour 20 minutes. (j) In constructing zigzag diagrams, possible conditions of sun glare, prevailing wind, and position of light areas during twilight should be considered, and the zigzag selected so as to afford the greatest advantage with regard to light, wind, and sea conditions. --- 32 --- Source: "ONI Publications, WWI" ZV file, Navy Department Library.
30 --- RULE: In a light breeze a submarine may attack from either windward or leeward side. If the attack is from windward, a torpedo fired is probably a bow shot. If from the leeward, it probably is a stern shot. REASON: In a light breeze the submarine will travel with the wind and sea, therefore, from windward it will use its bow tubes; from leeward, its stern tube. METHOD TO AVOID ATTACK: Keep the wind and sea abaft the beam if possible. 85. -RULE: A submarine will seldom fire a torpedo when the sea is dead calm.